Arkansas symposium focuses on history of African American medicine in the state
president further declared the negro physician is especially called upon to play the part of the philanthropist. He must subjugate the possibility of accumulating great riches by instructing his patients in the art of keeping well, it is alarmingly true that are racist, disintegrating physically consumption, which is pulmonary tuberculosis scroll fuel, a type of tuberculosis infection and venereal disease are claiming as its victims a greater percentage of this generation than in the past, diseases are alarming in the context, morality produced and the inability of sanitary boards to arrest or circumscribe its ravage. It is our unquestionable duty as the advanced guard of the negro civilization to correct as far as possible these evils to find the causes and produce the remedies that will in some measure retarded these great diseases which are devastating our communities and rushing our people into untimely graves. No people can survive against contending races who are not healthy morally religiously and physically end quote because African american medical professionals were the 1st and 4th and 1st and foremost concerned about health issues in black communities. Some traveled to areas where there was a great need for medical care among african americans. And this is when they talk about the death rate among african americans. In 1912, dr Lucrecia and carter from Helena became the first african american woman to apply for a medical license in Arkansas. Dr carter had studied medicine in Chicago. Of course, black doctors were not welcome everywhere in Arkansas. In this article from the star progress from Berryville. Arkansas. Also in 1912, she was advised to not locate in Berryville with any help hope of making a living with her practice. So of course you couldn’t go wherever you wanted to go. But black doctors, however, thrived in other parts of the state In 1919. For instance, Dr. John M. Gill, who practiced medicine in Brownsville and Memphis Tennessee set up an office in Pine Bluff. Dr Gill also had a connection to Arkansas A. M. And N. Then of course known as Branch Normal Institute, where he had been a lieutenant in the Medical corps during World War One. When African American doctors, dentists and pharmacists, men in little rock in 1920, it wasn’t part to offer free medical and free medical and surgical surgical clinic at the fraternal and Bush hospitals. The J. E. Busch Memorial Hospital, known as one of the largest African american hospitals in the south was founded by black physicians in 1918 and named for john Edward Bush and Arkansas, Republican Party member and co founder of the mosaic templars of America, Who died in 1916. The Bush Hospital, which was located at Arch Street was touted as to quote most magnificent negro House Middle in the south, which was also the official institution for African american employees of the Missouri and pacific Rock Island Railroad Railways because of course african americans did not expect to be treated as white at white hospitals and as you can also see in this example, blacks could also go to the Royal Circle of Friends Hospital and the fraternal Hospital. Now about the Bush hospital Newspapers noted the hospital’s success just 2-3 years after it was established In 1920. For instance, fiscal year 1920, Per reports submitted to the hospital’s directors and stockholders, 708 patients had been treated. The hospital, which had reportedly done quote, splendid work among the colored people end quote, also had a training school that included extended curriculum. The hospital’s superintendent was Dr. G. W. Stanley Ish, who was also a member of his surgical staff and ISH, just a little more about him. Was born in little rock in 1883 and was the child of educators. He graduated from high school in little rock and then attended Alabama’s Talladega College, from which he graduated in 1903. He was then educated at Yale University’s Collegiate department from which he graduated with a second Bachelors. Although the field in which he earned the degree is unknown. Ish earned his medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1909. He returned to little rock and helped found the J. E. Bush met Memorial Hospital, which unfortunately closed in 1927. Ish was also a trustee and director of the United Friends Hospital nurse training school founded in 1922 and chartered in 1924 In 1953. He was one of the 1st 4 1st Black Doctors admitted to the Pulaski County Medical Society. The society’s president. Dr Raymond C Cook said that the four quote met all the personal qualifications and were thoroughly investigated by our credentials committee. One of the other four black doctors, Dr Coby white claimed that quote, Arkansas has gone a step forward in race relations Ish, remained director of the United Friends Hospital until his death in 1970. Dr ish, along with his colleague, Dr Jay M Robinson also organized the Bush Memorial Hospital Benefit Association in 1921 to support the construction of a 300 bed facility with bed with resources to care for tubercular patients. Dr Robinson, who was also the organization’s secretary treasurer. And I just want to show you this very quickly. This is just a picture of Dr ish and his family in the Pittsburgh courier back in 1960. For many of you know that this was a very well known african american newspaper and it lists here, um dr ish, his son, his daughters, his wife, the entire family is there. But anyway, Dr Jam Robinson, who was the organization’s secretary treasurer, was a graduate of Marjory Medical College, a historically african american medical college in Tennessee. Like many educated african americans is organizational affiliations where many Robinson was, for instance, a member of the negro businessmen’s league of Arkansas that was affiliated with the National Negro Business Men’s League, founded by Booker T. Washington in 1909, Robinson was additionally politically active In 1942, he was the president of the Arkansas Equal Democratic Association and asserted that 10,000 qualified African Americans had voted democratic since 1928. He further encouraged african americans to vote when they were refused ballots by election officials in Little Rock, Pine Bluff and Conway Arkansas, who claimed that both the election was for electors. Only Robinson contributed to a plan to test the legality of refusing african americans citizens of the United States the right to vote by submitting a report to N double A cP attorney Thurgood marshall. Many of the struggles facing african american medical professionals were born by african american women. Black nurses in particular were routinely denied access to training or medical opportunities to practice in their profession. Just as an example in little rock in 1909, Pulaski County judge Asher asserted to a grand jury that quote, no nurses will be placed in the county hospital. He also opposed the use of white nurses or african american doctors in black hospitals. However, black nurses services were necessary to combat the many illnesses plaguing african american communities like tuberculosis. That term comes up a lot. In 1914, Dr G W. Haman, Superintendent of the Little Rock colored infirmary wrote to the Arkansas gazette underscoring the need for the institution and black nurses to improve health outcomes in african american communities and this is what he said, The Negro race needs an institution of this kind and one can well be operated if the proper efforts are rightly centered here in this adjoining city are are dente. There are 20,000 negroes, if not more, many of whom are in good circumstances possessing a marked degree of intelligence. This institution has planned not only to offer the best attention to the injured and sick, but to train young colored women in the art of sick nursing, thereby enabling them to impart valuable health hints to thousands of their race who are daily violating the laws of good sanitation. The colored girls that are training in this infirmary will enter the homes of their race. Acquaint themselves as to the manner and mode of their living and thus be able to correct many of the evils that are making enrolls upon their physical condition. Not only will the graduated nurses prove serviceable in this endeavor, but by reasons of her qualifications, avenues for useful employment will be open, which will enable her to make an honest upright living. In 1921, when the Pulaski County tuberculosis association gathered at the Marion hotel Members embarked upon a $15,000 campaign to eradicate the disease among whites. African american physicians again, like dR G. W Stanley Ish, were scheduled to address african americans. The following sunday when african americans gathered in city hall J. E. Bush’s wife was selected to just a second were selected to share the women’s division and attorney Scipio. Africanus jones chair of the men’s division. Both divisions taught were tasked with the responsibility of quote canvassing business and professional men to aid in raising $15,000 required to carry on the work of the Pulaski Tuberculosis Association. Raising money, however, did not necessarily lead to equal resources. The association had one african american nurse who was devoted quote photon to the care of negroes suffering from tuberculosis in pulaski county. One nurse for all the african americans in pulaski county. Um, and although they also said an additional nurse is urgently needed in the work though, few in number black nurses served in many capacities. African American nurses got degrees and diplomas rather from the Bush Memorial Hospital training school. As you can see in the example here from 1922 and what’s good about digitized newspapers is that we can see who some of these women were. Black nurses served during international wars like World War One. So this is where there was a recruiting station at ninth and broadway four o’clock in the afternoon and they’re recruiting african american women between the ages of 19 and 35 to enroll. We also have african american nurses like Lena Low jordans Who had been born in 1884 in rural Georgia In 1911, she received her nursing certificate at the Charity Hospital in Savannah, after which she established the hospital in Cordele Georgia before moving to Arkansas in the 1920s In 1927, she became head nurse at the Mosaic Templars Hospital in Little Rock. Jordan founded the Arkansas Home and Hospital for Crippled Negro Children. A short time later in 1932, the institution later moved to the home of the late J. E. Bush in 1942 and became a 20 bed general hospital for African Americans, equipped for general surgery, medical obstetric care. During World war two, the hospital provided prenatal care for the wives of black servicemen who again could not expect to be treated at white hospitals. In one example, in 1941, Dr Jay M. Robinson, assisted by Dr. Ish and Nurses, Ross and Jordan’s performed a Cesarean on a 44 year old woman. Although the baby was stillborn, the team was able to save the mother’s life and according to the black owned and operated Arkansas State press only skillful surgery prevented them further loss of life and that of the mother suffering from complicated conditions in the pelvic region and that quote, she would have died too had the doctors not operated immediately. Salina Jordan Hospital also operated a nurse training program. According to the Pittsburgh courier. Under Jordan’s mrs Jordan’s program, girls were brought from
Arkansas symposium focuses on history of African American medicine in the state
Three experts discussed their research on the history of African American medicine in Arkansas and the impact on minority communities today.The Black History Commission’s goal is to educate people across the state about the stories of Black doctors and nurses then and now. One of the organizers says that we need to learn from Arkansas’ challenging past to better prepare future black medical professionals. “A lot of people don’t know the history. So if you don’t know, you make a lot of assumptions,” Tatyana Oyinloye, African American History Coordinator for State Archives, told 40/29 News. But once you actually do the history and research, you will find the struggles and journeys that they had to face to get to the point where they are because it was not easy.”Experts talked about how our history impacts Black medical professionals today. Speakers include Dr. Joycelyn Elders who will talk about her journey to the White House, Dr. Cherisse Jones- Branch and Dr. Jesse Hargrove.
Three experts discussed their research on the history of African American medicine in Arkansas and the impact on minority communities today.
The Black History Commission’s goal is to educate people across the state about the stories of Black doctors and nurses then and now.
One of the organizers says that we need to learn from Arkansas’ challenging past to better prepare future black medical professionals.
“A lot of people don’t know the history. So if you don’t know, you make a lot of assumptions,” Tatyana Oyinloye, African American History Coordinator for State Archives, told 40/29 News. But once you actually do the history and research, you will find the struggles and journeys that they had to face to get to the point where they are because it was not easy.”
Experts talked about how our history impacts Black medical professionals today.
Speakers include Dr. Joycelyn Elders who will talk about her journey to the White House, Dr. Cherisse Jones- Branch and Dr. Jesse Hargrove.